Wonderful pansies, culture features
Viola can, without exaggeration, be called the favorite of all peoples and all times, it is one of the most ancient flowers that was grown in culture.
Viola, or more familiar to our hearing violet (Viola) belongs to the genus of herbaceous plants from the Fialkov family, which has more than five hundred species. They are widespread throughout the world, while the overwhelming majority of them have been known to man since ancient times.
The real flourishing of the viola is considered to be the 16th century, when the viola appeared in large quantities in the gardens of Europe. Viola varietal forms appeared several decades later - at the beginning of the 17th century, the very first of them were obtained by breeders in England. There are quite a few interesting stories connected with violets. However, viola varieties began to be produced in mass quantities only in the 19th century, at the same time they, having flooded Europe, appeared in small quantities in Russia.
The vast majority of currently known varieties of violets are very complex hybrids that are obtained using violets tricolor (Viola tricolor), Altai (Viola altaica), yellow (Viola lutea) and a number of other lesser known species, all of them are united under one name - Vitrokka violet.
Violet Vitrokka also has a closer name to us - garden pansies (Viola wittrockiana), it blooms profusely and for a very long time, often dying under the first autumn frosts. This is a short plant, rarely exceeding 30-35 cm, with numerous satin or single-sided and velvety-like flowers of the widest range of colors.
The very name of the species comes from the common name Veit Vitrokk, which was worn by the Swedish professor of botany and director of the Bregen Botanical Garden and the author of a book that told the whole long history of this plant.
Now the overwhelming part of the wide variety of violets are complex heterotic hybrids, which are characterized by very rapid growth, early and long flowering, resistance to disease and drought.
Cultivars such as Snow Kinghaving a white flower color, Little Red Riding Hood with a bright red eye, Winter sun - yellow color with an eye, Surf - light blue color, Elbe waters - deep blue, Purple stone - blue flowers with white, Black crystal - velvety, dark, almost black in color. Nowadays, variety mixtures have become very popular, they are good because they guarantee products that are aligned in most parameters. Of the wide variety of mixtures, the most popular are the following:
Alpha - this is a series of early large-flowered viols, their flower diameter often exceeds 8 cm. Plants are aligned, compact, branch abundantly and reach a height of 20-25 cm. Seedlings are resistant to stretching in low light conditions, perfect for growing in pots and containers. The color of the flowers is from white to purple.
Boss - this variety is the richest in the number of colors, one listing of them would take more than a leaf, so it should only be noted that it varies from snow-white to black. The plants are also aligned, have very large flowers, reaching a diameter of up to 10 cm. The height of the plants barely exceeds 15 cm, they are compact and suitable both for growing in open areas and in containers.
Shalon Supreme - this group has corrugated petals - the result of many years and very painstaking work of breeders. The plants are quite compact, reaching a height of 15 cm, and their petals are painted in a variety of tones from all shades of pink to all shades of blue.
Romeo and Juliet - this variety contains perfectly matched delicate flower colors of more than a dozen shades. This is perhaps the most abundantly flowering viola series. Plants are not very tall (15-20 cm), they will be an ideal solution for decorating a flower garden or flower beds in a suburban area.
Among the new products, it should be noted, first of all, the mixture Aurora Shades... This is a series of large-flowered violas with a unique azure border on each petal. Plants grow to a height of 20 cm, they are very resistant to drought, tolerate even slight frosts, and bloom early and profusely.
Mixture Pussy - This is a magnificent hybrid, its flowers have contrasting strokes on the petal, reminiscent of a cobweb. The plants are very expressive, reach a height of 15 cm, bloom early and for a long time, and they can even withstand partial shade.
Mixture Moulin rouge is the first viola hybrid designed for cutting and featuring unique crimped petals. Plants are very compact, reach a height of 20 cm, are resistant to cold and drought, very fast growth and long flowering.
Viola breeding methods
Viola varieties Purple Pansies
Biologically, viola is a typical perennial, but most often it is grown as an annual or biennial plant. This is done by flower growers because with age the viola bush loses its resistance to cold and most often freezes completely. Sometimes old plants degenerate, they lose their decorative effect, which is manifested in a decrease in the size of the inflorescence, in a weak and shorter flowering.
The main method for producing viola flowers is sowing its seeds in open ground or in containers in protected ground. Sometimes viola is propagated vegetatively, but this is rather an exception.
Viola's seeds are rather small, one gram contains about a thousand seeds, sometimes a little less. The seeds will remain viable under normal storage conditions for a couple of years.
Viola is used most often in flower beds, for example, in Europe, early spring or autumn-winter flower beds are created. With this in mind, the seedlings are also being prepared for planting in terms of timing - for early flowering, seeds are sown in autumn, and for autumn - in summer.
In Russia, viola is most often placed in spring flower beds, however, it is possible to achieve flowering viola, ranking the sowing dates, at any time of the year.
Growing seedlings of violets
According to the standard technology, seeds are sown in open ground or in cold greenhouses on soil that is prepared in advance. The optimal time for sowing viola is the end of June or the beginning of July in central Russia.
The soil prepared for sowing should consist of simple garden soil, humus, peat and river sand in a ratio of 2: 2: 2: 1. Viola seeds are sown in rows in shallow grooves, which are located at a distance of 9-12 cm. Sometimes the seeds are sown randomly, followed by embedding them to a depth of about 5 mm. In this case, the seeding rate is 2-3 grams of seeds per square meter.
Usually, with enough moisture and the presence of heat, the first shoots begin to appear a couple of weeks after sowing. They grow very slowly initially and, being weak, can suffer from direct sunlight, so they need to be shaded.
About a month after germination, when the seedlings form a pair of true leaves, they must be cut at a distance of at least 5 cm from each other. A week after transplanting, you can start feeding young viola plants. This is done approximately once every two weeks, alternating complex mineral fertilizers and organic matter. Further care is simple, it comes down to periodic watering, loosening the soil and removing all weeds.
Around the beginning of September, already thoroughly grown plants must be transplanted to a permanent place.
If you decide to grow a violet in a biennial culture, then in the first year it will form only a few pairs of leaves, but you will only wait for flowering next year - it will come in May or early June and last until mid-summer.
If you have the opportunity to build a heated greenhouse on your site, then you can use the one-year option for cultivating viola. It ensures later flowering of plants, which will end with the first frosts.
I think that many readers will be interested to know: how do you need to grow viola seedlings? And this is done this way: initially you need to decide - by what time you need to get it, because the timing of sowing seeds can be very different.
For example, to get non-flowering seedlings for planting in a flower garden in May, you need to sow the seeds around the end of February or early March, then the violet will bloom in early summer. If you want to get already flowering seedlings, which are ideal for planting in containers and flower beds, then you need to sow the seeds around the end of January or in February. In this case, the seedlings will be ready in early May, and full flowering plants will be obtained in early June.
To obtain such seedlings, seeds must be sown in the soil of a heated greenhouse or in small containers that can be placed in a heated room. It is better to use the soil light and well-drained, as well as sterilized. Seeds are usually sown randomly, only slightly sprinkled on top and must be moistened. The optimum temperature for obtaining seedlings should be within + 17 ... + 20 ° С, in which case they will appear a week later or a little earlier. As soon as most of the seeds sprout, the temperature will need to be lowered to + 13 ... + 17 ° C. And you can already start feeding with complex mineral fertilizers.
Read the next part. Viola: agricultural technology and landscape use →
department of berry crops VNIIS them. I.V. Michurin.
Photo by Natalia Myshina and Natalia Butyagina
Read also about violets:
• Fragrant violet - medicinal and ornamental plant
• Saintpaulia, peculiarities of growing in an apartment, watering and feeding
• Rules for growing uzambara violets
• Saintpaulia - Usambara violet, creating conditions for growing
• Infectious diseases of the uzambar violet: powdery mildew, fusarium, gray rot
In addition to the ancient cultivated berries of raspberries, strawberries, red and black currants, gooseberries, in Russian gardens and vegetable gardens, strawberries, blackberries, blueberries - originally wild berries - have recently begun to be cultivated. Despite the species diversity of honeysuckle, gardeners prefer two varieties: edible and azure (blue). The varieties derived from them are also widespread.
Honeysuckle berries are often eaten
Edible honeysuckle refers to bushes with a growth rate strictly upward. As a rule, they grow no more than a meter in height, have thin green branches, dotted with purple. When the shoot grows old, it reaches a width of three centimeters, covered with dark bark, which tends to come off with jewelry stripes.
Interesting! The top has the shape of a ball, the branches are densely covered with long leaves of an elongated configuration, the stipules are rounded.
Edible honeysuckle outwardly differs somewhat from decorative
At the beginning of the season, golden-colored flowers bloom at the base of the leaves. They have the shape of an elongated bell and bloom in pairs. Ripe berries are colored in a deep blue shade and reach one and a half centimeters in length. The variety defines the final shape: round, oval or elongated cylinder.
Fascinatingly! Inside the berries are deep red with a tinge of purple, the seeds are brown and not a lot of two millimeters in size.
Yellow flowers bloom at the beginning of the season
Blue honeysuckle (blue) looks like a shrub with a growth course straight up. Its height reaches two and a half meters, the branches have a curved shape, the top is placed loosely. In an adult plant, the bark acquires a brown color with a shade of red or gray, leaves the trunk with jewelry stripes. The leaves have a curved oval shape, reaching up to six centimeters in length and up to three in width. At the base of the leaves, located in the lower part of the shrub, flowers bloom in the shape of a bell and a pale yellow color. After ripening, oblong berries appear, colored in a dark blue color. They have a grayish tinge and have a sweet taste with a hint of bitterness like blueberries.
All varieties of honeysuckle grow rather quickly, have a long lifespan and fruiting: up to eighty years. This shrub does not have the ability to self-pollinate, and so that plants can reproduce and bear fruit, gardeners grow several varieties in one area at once. Next, insects are connected: they fly from bush to bush and participate in the process of pollination.
Fascinatingly! In some regions, honeysuckle is the main source of honey for bees.
Honeysuckle can bear fruit for up to eighty years.
Types of potting mixes
In general, the potting mix should be:
- highly nutritious
- well absorb and retain moisture
- have a slightly acidic, neutral or slightly alkaline reaction (pH 6.5-7-7.5).
Depending on the type of plant, various soil mixtures are prepared.
Suitable for growing pumpkin seedlings:
- 50% turf land
- 15% leaf land
- 10% peat
- 15% humus
- 10% sand or sand substitutes.
The composition of potting mixes can be changed to create more simplified or more specialized recipes. Do not forget to take into account the properties of the soil and the requirements of the plants for the composition of the soil.
The nature of the viola: what conditions are necessary for growth and flowering?
If you want to know how to grow viola, then pay attention to its character.
Pansies are a problem-free plant that blooms abundantly on balconies and flower beds
Viola is not capricious, but you also need to be able to find an approach to her. Viola care assumes compliance with the following factors:
1. Lighting and temperature
Abundant flowering of viola is possible only in good light. It has a positive attitude towards diffused sunlight and even rays. But! There should be a measure in everything. If the summer in your area is hot, then the viola will fade in the midday sun. Viola treats the spring midday rays favorably, and the summer ones are too hot for her. Therefore, if a hot summer is predicted, do not plant the viola in open sunny areas. South balconies don't fit either. Rather, the viola will grow and even bloom, but only before the onset of heat, on average, until July. Later, you will have to get rid of the bushes, since their decorative effect will disappear (there will be no flowering, the leaves will turn yellow and dry).
The best spot for pansies is sunny areas, but shaded during midday hours. Morning or evening even sun rays will only benefit the viola. That is, ideally, for viols, partial shade is needed, with a lot of diffused light. In this case, the leaves remain juicy, green, and do not fade until the daylight. The flowers do not become smaller (this often happens when the viola is grown in the shade, without even sunlight). You will get a win-win growing result by planting a viola in the openwork shade of a young tree. Or near any screen (fence, bush, flower plantings) that casts a shadow on the viola at noon. West and east balconies are also suitable.
Viola raised in partial shade
Viola develops well in cool conditions. Ideal temperatures for her are 10-25 ° C. It withstands, without loss of decorativeness, and short-term cold up to 3-5 ° C.But the heat affects the viola badly, therefore, often in hot summers (especially when grown in sunny areas) a break in flowering is imminent. The second wave of flowering in this case is likely, but only in autumn.
Viola does not tolerate prolonged drying. You need to water it often with a poet, without waiting for the earth near the roots to turn to stone. But you shouldn't plant swamps either! Viola is very demanding on the amount of moisture consumed. With its excess, the roots of the plant begin to rot and rot, the viola dies.
3. Top dressing
In order for the viola to bloom all summer, it needs regular feeding. When growing viola on the balcony, it is necessary to eat indoors, fertilize the soil every week. If the flowers grow in open ground (on the site), the frequency of fertilization can be reduced to 1 time in 3-4 weeks.
Mistake 3: inappropriate container for seedlings
The use of unsuitable containers for seedlings - too heavy, (large, cramped), poorly drained and other poor-quality or poorly chosen containers - can also destroy the plants. Not having time to rise, the seeds will rot. Even if you are lucky and some of them will still sprout, it is not a fact that the seedlings will be able to develop normally when their root system is in unfavorable conditions.
The result depends on the correct choice of container for seedlings.
This video will teach you how to make your own peat tablets:
You can read about what containers can and should be used to grow healthy and strong seedlings in the article Paper honeycombs, peat tablets and 13 more options for seedling containers).
You can choose containers for seedlings in our catalog, which combines the offers of large garden online stores. See a selection of seedling containers.
Viola medicinal properties
Pansies have beneficial properties for the human body
Traditional medicine uses pansies to treat the following conditions:
- Inflammation of the genitourinary system
- Skin diseases
- Diseases of the joints
- Diseases of the gums and teeth
Broths are used as a diuretic, diaphoretic, hemostatic agent.
You can not use pansies for medicinal purposes for diseases such as:
It is also not recommended for use by children under three years of age, pregnant and lactating women. For any use of plant materials for medicinal purposes. A doctor's consultation is required.
Procurement of raw materials
For medicinal purposes, both the root and ground parts of the viola are used.
The grass is harvested in the summer during the active flowering period. It needs to be dried; for this, spread out in a well-ventilated area. The layer should not be very thick, otherwise it will start to rot and become moldy. Do not dry in direct sunlight.
Prescriptions of medicines
From the dried viola, you can prepare an infusion
... It is used to rinse the throat and mouth, as a bath and lotion.
For cooking you will need:
- 1 tablespoon dry raw materials
- 200 gr. boiling water
Pour boiling water over the pansies and leave for 15 minutes in a warm place. You can use a thermos or a water bath. Then strain, cool and apply.
Cough syrup recipe:
- Water - 1 l
- Sugar - 125 gr
- Lemon - 1 piece
- Dried pansies - 1 tbsp. the spoon
Boil water and pour dry grass over it. Insist during the night. Then add sugar and cook the syrup until thick. A few minutes until ready, squeeze the juice from the lemon and add to the syrup. Take 1 - 2 times a day for a tablespoon.
Pansies are not harmful to health when consumed in moderation. Their flowers are used in cooking to decorate dishes and pastries.
How to grow a plant
Pansies: 10 types, a description of the process of growing from seeds in the open field and seedlings at home, the use of flowers (60+ Photos & Videos) + Reviews
Pansies are unpretentious. Growing them will be a lot of fun. They will delight with their flowers, similar to cheerful butterflies. Believers in beliefs, they will bring happiness and love to the house. Adherents of traditional methods of treatment will help get rid of ailments. In conclusion, we suggest watching a video about these poetic colors. Feedback from our readers is very important for us. If you disagree with these ratings, leave your rating in the comments with the reasoning for your choice. Thank you for your participation. Your opinion will be useful to other users.
Peach - growing and care
Peach is an ancient culture, whose homeland is considered to be northern China. The main plantations of peach are concentrated in the subtropics and warm regions of the Caucasus, European and Asian states. The culture of peaches stepped into the vastness of the southern and some middle regions in the second half of the last century. Currently, there is a real peach boom. Many gardeners prefer peaches over apricots. Peaches are more hardy in spring return frosts. The advantages of a peach include the possibility of obtaining a full-fledged harvest with the inheritance of maternal traits (large-fruited, pulp taste, aroma, etc.) when propagated by seeds.
Peach tree with fruits. © M. Denise Wilmer Barreto