Radish in Russia is considered its own, local culture. We began to grow it in ancient times, so long ago that it is impossible to establish an exact date. Old sayings are associated with radish. Horseradish radish is not sweeter, Tired of worse bitter radish and others. And in the world it was known together with onions and garlic in Ancient Egypt and Ancient Greece. And today radish is grown all over the world. We cultivate mainly two types, black and white radishes, which are called winter radishes because they are successfully stored until next spring. And only recently, Japanese radish began to appear on our beds - daikon, Chinese green radish and other, hitherto unfamiliar varieties.
All radishes belong to the cruciferous family. You need to know this in order to take into account the predecessors when planting. It is not recommended to plant radishes after cruciferous plants such as cabbage. Also, all crucifers have common pests that are fought with the same means.
This is an annual plant, it can be two years old when the overwintered root crop is planted for seeds. Fruits are round or oblong, with a thin black skin. The size depends on the growing conditions; in favorable conditions, the root crops of some varieties can grow up to 3 kg in weight. The taste is similar to that of a radish, but more pungent and aromatic, more characteristic of seasonings than of the main food. Due to the highly concentrated content of essential oils and glucosides (glycosides), radish cannot be consumed in large quantities. Therefore, in Russia, it was never grown on large areas, like potatoes, beets and turnips, but it was always grown a little.
Black radish is listed in the catalogs of food and medicinal plants, and is the basis for a huge number of healing recipes in traditional medicine.
It is believed that black radish has the following beneficial properties:
- Improves the functioning of the cardiovascular and nervous systems.
- Stimulates the immune system and strengthens the entire body as a whole.
- Improves digestive functions.
- Works as a prophylactic agent for atherosclerosis.
- The sap of the plant stimulates hair growth and relieves inflammation in skin diseases.
- Normalizes water and salt balance.
- Helps with urolithiasis by dissolving stones.
- Helps relieve bruising pain.
- Increases lactation in nursing mothers.
- Helps with pain in the heart and rheumatism.
- Effectively helps with coughs, bronchitis.
- Works as a natural antibiotic.
- Improves metabolism in the body, which is fundamental to prevent obesity and other disorders.
But you need to remember that radish, like any potent remedy, has contraindications. First of all, these are intestinal ulcers and individual intolerance. A significant amount of radish, taken with food, always strongly activates the digestion processes, which inevitably causes the rapid formation of gases. Therefore, the consumption of radish should always be started with small amounts.
The radish contains mineral salts that are easily assimilated by the body:
And also a wide range of vitamins:
- Groups B - B1, B2, B3, B5, B6.
- Vitamin C in large quantities - 29 mg per 100 g of radish.
- Vitamin A.
- Vitamin E.
Regardless of the color and type of radish, their composition is almost identical. The significant difference is that black radish contains more essential oils and glucosides (glycosides), which give it a sharper taste and pungent odor. Radishes with white roots, usually early varieties.
As an example, consider a popular white radish variety.
They are not stored in winter, they are used fresh in summer. The first fruits begin to ripen after 50-60 days from germination. Root crops are small, from 70 to 140 g, even, white. The pulp is juicy and tasty, not too harsh, unlike the late varieties. Does not crack. Plus the varieties are resistant to flowering, which often happens in summer heat, and this property allows you to harvest the entire warm season. The first sowing is in the earliest spring.
Among the white and black radishes we are used to, the daikon is distinguished, which in Russia has many names: Japanese radish, white radish, sweet radish.
It tastes more like a widespread radish in our country, but much more fruitful due to large oblong fruits.
The size of the fruit makes it clear how much the daikon is more productive than the radish.
Fresh daikon leaves are also used in salads.
It is also called Chinese radish, lobo or lobah.
It differs from the usual radish and daikon by its juiciness and mild taste. Outwardly, it is completely unlike a radish, but has a lot in common with it. Just like radish, it can be of different shapes - round, oval or elongated. The weight of the root crop is from 300 to 500 g. Like radish, it quickly overripes, coarsens and loses its consumer value. The taste is also similar to radish. The color may surprise - this radish is white, green and even purple.
Green color option and garden view
Margelan radish is relatively unpretentious. It grows quickly to market ripeness, just like radish. It grows well at a temperature of 16-25 degrees. But it has not yet received wide distribution either in Europe or in Russia.
In addition to radish with root vegetables, there are other varieties.
Wild radish, or sverbig
Wild radish is considered a conditionally edible and medicinal plant, but requires knowledge and proper handling when used. Its mustard oils contain poisonous substances at the time of flowering. At other times, the stems are edible. and there are many recipes for using them in food.
During flowering, it looks vaguely like a rape
The roots of wild radish are poisonous, and its seeds are also dangerous. They can harm livestock or poultry that eat them.
It is a malicious weed with a height of 30 to 70 cm, the seeds of which are spread over cultivated fields with insufficiently cleaned seed material.
May benefit as a good honey plant.
It is an annual plant that does not occur in the wild. Recently, both abroad and in Russia, they began to plant large plantations for different purposes. Oil radish:
- Great green manure, like mustard. The roots loosen and aerate the earth, saturate it with useful substances, essential oils destroy the main group of diseases and parasites, rotted green mass provides the field with high-quality organic matter. Radish heals and nourishes depleted plantations.
- Strong honey plant. It blooms for a long time and stably, regardless of the weather, it works as a source of nectar even when flowers on other crops have long faded.
- Fodder crop, more nutritious than plain meadow hay, is used for silage and dried for the winter.
- Used in pharmacology for the manufacture of medicines.
- In the food industry, protein for the dietary nutrition of athletes and enriched vegetable oils are made from it, for which the radish was named oilseed. But the preparation of oil from it is a laborious and expensive process, therefore rare oil is mined in small quantities.
The tops are left to rot in the winter, and the bees have a lot of nectar.
Radish loves with the following qualities:
- Neutral acidity.
- Loose chernozems, loams, gray soils and sandy loam.
Radish grows poorly in clayey cold soils. She loves moisture, therefore, on sandy soils that do not hold water well, constant watering is required in dry weather. Radish can be grown after any crop, but not cruciferous. But the best predecessors are nightshades, cucumbers and especially peas.
It is possible to qualitatively prepare the soil with an additional operation before autumn plowing - peeling. In autumn, immediately after harvesting the predecessor, the soil is loosened to a shallow depth, up to 7 cm. After such treatment, weed seeds germinate, which are in the soil, they are then destroyed by ordinary plowing in the fall or digging. As a result, next year there will be fewer weeds, and young weeds, quickly rotting, will give the soil an additional dose of organic matter.
In order for the weeds to germinate, winter plowing is carried out no earlier than two to three weeks after peeling. But some predecessor crops are harvested in late autumn, and then they are plowed immediately without peeling.
There can be no calendar dates for the beginning of spring work, they are different every year and by region. The exact guideline is that the soil in the spring for sowing radishes for consumption in the summer begins to be prepared as soon as the soil dries up and will not stick to the tool. In small areas, they are harrowed with a rake, manually. When harrowing, the top layer of the soil is loosened, tiny shoots of weeds that have had time to germinate are removed, the soil retains moisture.
But if the soil in the cold period has become very compacted due to rains, it may be necessary to dig it up again or loosen it with a walk-behind tractor to half the depth of autumn plowing and harrow.
Top dressing in the ground
Radish is demanding on nutrients, therefore, even on fertile soils, it will not hurt to add 20 g of ammonium nitrate, 25 g of superphosphate and 20 g of potassium salt per square meter.
On depleted soils, in addition to this top dressing, 3-4 kg of compost or manure humus per 1 sq. M. Should be applied. Fresh manure is absolutely impossible to introduce, it can cause cracking, decay and the formation of voids in root crops.
Radish seed size matters. Large seeds have a higher germination rate, they give stronger shoots, and large root crops grow from them. Purchased seeds are calibrated, and if the seeds are your own, you need to cook them. Use one variety of healthy seeds. If there is a sieve with cells of 2–2.5 mm, the seeds are sieved. If there is no sieve, a solution of table salt is brought in (a little tablespoon with a top, about 50 g per 1 liter of water) and seeds are poured into it. The largest seeds will sink to the bottom. But after such a calibration, the seeds must be washed, otherwise, due to salt, there will be low germination.
The seeds are soaked in methyl blue (methylene blue) in a proportion of 0.3 g per 1 liter of water or in potassium permanganate - 0.2 g per 1 liter of water for about a day until the seeds begin to hatch.
The radish is planted in two terms:
- Early spring for summer consumption.
- For winter storage from late June to late July, often after harvesting other early ripening crops - garlic, early potatoes, spinach.
Radish can be sown in single rows, with a distance of 60 cm between them, or in 3 rows, between which 35 cm, and then passages of 60–70 cm are left between the built rows.
Without a special seeder, it is impossible to immediately maintain the correct distance between plants in a row. In addition, the percentage of germination is unknown before germination. Therefore, they sow at the rate of 0.3–0.4 g per 1 square meter, or 3-4 g (a teaspoon flush with the edges) per 10 square meters. Then, in the process of growth, the radish is pulled apart twice. The first time in the phase of two or three true leaves. 9–12 cm should remain between the bushes. The second time is thinned out in the phase of four to five leaves. Between bushes of late large-fruited varieties should be 18–20 cm. Between early varieties with a small root crop, 10–12 cm is enough.
Thinning is combined with weeding, so the second thinning is not an unnecessary operation, but a concomitant one with weeding. By the phase of four leaves, weak plants that are lagging behind in development are clearly visible, and they are removed, as well as weeds that have sprung up in rows next to the radish.
Thinning is a necessary operation for thickened plantings. Like radish, thickened radish, in principle, will not be able to give a normal harvest and will go into flowering.
In addition to thinning, it is required:
- Loosening the soil.
- Watering if the soil dries up without rain.
- Pest control.
The soil under the radish must not be loosened deeper than 7 cm. If it is deeper, the root system can be damaged. In addition, with deep loosening, weed seeds rise to the surface. Then they will sprout, and additional weeding will be required - the radish does not bear fruit in thickening, not only among themselves, but also in the weeds, therefore there are increased requirements for the purity of the plots from weeds.
It makes sense to sprinkle the soil with mulch under the crops of radish only closer to summer, when the soil warms up and thinning and weeding will take place. In the past, mulch will slow down the heating of the soil and will interfere with weeding. Mulching weeded summer crops can greatly facilitate maintenance - mulch will drown out the germination of small weeds and prevent the soil from drying out in the summer heat.
Top dressing during growth
To ensure a high yield, the radish is fed in small doses twice per growing season. In dissolved form during irrigation, 10 g of ammonium nitrate, 10 g of superphosphate and 10 g of potassium salt are added per 10 sq. M. That is, in terms of 1 g of each fertilizer per 1 sq. M.
This top dressing can be replaced with organic matter. Poultry droppings are used with water in a ratio of 1:10. They pour in a little, 2-3 liters per 1 sq. M, together with irrigation with clean water. The rate of watering with clean water in dry weather is significant - 20–30 liters per 1 sq. M.
The most dangerous pest of the radish is the cruciferous flea. The cabbage fly is also harmful, but it rarely breeds in large quantities, and the flea - a small black jumping insect - can completely destroy crops. You can prevent their appearance and disperse an already shrunken colony of flea beetles with a mixture of tobacco dust and wood ash in a 1: 1 ratio. You may have to dust it several times, once every few days or as pests appear. Fleas spoil the coarse foliage of an adult plant less than tiny tender sprouts.
In extreme cases, you can apply the recommended insecticides according to the instructions for their use. But after processing them, as well as after dusting with ash and tobacco dust, fleas may appear again after a while. Therefore, processing with folk remedies is preferable.
Growing radish seeds
Radish seeds have time to ripen even in cold regions, where the climate allows radish to be grown. Seed radish in the first year is not grown specially, but is taken from the general harvest. Root crops of medium and large sizes are selected for seeds, standard, that is, with typical characteristics of the variety. Atypical fruits - irregular in shape, unusual color, cracked, damaged - are discarded. The tops are cut, leaving 1–2 cm, the main thing is not to damage the apical bud. The testes are stored along with food radish. (See below for radish storage).
In the second year, seed radish requires almost the same soil and maintenance.
Radish is a cross-pollinated plant, it can be pollinated with radish, other varieties of radish, wild radish, oil radish, as a result, you can get plant seeds with unpredictable properties. Therefore, you need to carefully monitor the neighborhood:
- Grow only one variety.
- Destroy wild radish flowering bushes.
But it must be remembered that cross-pollination is possible only if different plants bloom at the same time and do not exaggerate the problem.
With simultaneous flowering with cultivated, it can over-dust the seed radish
The testes are planted in the earliest spring, as soon as the condition of the soil permits, together with food radish, but leaving the testes a large area of nutrition - 70 by 70 cm. The ripening of seeds can be accelerated by germination. For 12-15 days before planting, root crops are dropped in greenhouses or in a warm room in boxes with ordinary soil, close to each other. During this time, the radish takes root and the apical bud starts to grow.
In the process of leaving, the testes are fed together with food radish, but with a narrower specialization focused on seed growing, special fertilizing is used at other times:
- At the beginning of shoot growth, 20-30 g of ammonium nitrate and 50-60 g of superphosphate per 10 liters of water. Under one plant use 2-3 liters of such a solution.
- The second top dressing at the beginning of flowering, 30 g of superphosphate, 15 g of potassium salt per 10 liters of water. For one plant, use also 2-3 liters of solution.
Pest control is carried out in the same way as on food radish, but the mother plants have a personal pest - the rape flower beetle. Recommended chemicals can also be used against it, because the testis will not be used for food.
Signs of seed maturity:
- The pods turned yellow.
- The seeds turned brown.
When ripe, the radish pods do not open and the seeds do not fall out, like in many other crops. The bushes are cut, tied with sheaves, dried outdoors, in dry weather, or in a dry room. Dried testes are spread on a cloth and threshed, then cleaned, threshed through a sieve, or blown in a strong enough wind.
One plant can produce 60–75 g of seeds.
Undamaged fruits are left for winter storage. The tops are cut off completely, but without damaging the root crop. The correct storage conditions for radish in winter are in a cellar, underground or any room with a temperature from 0 to plus 2 degrees and an air humidity of 85–90%. Subzero temperatures are unacceptable. The higher the temperature is from the ideal 1 degree, the less the radish will lie. At temperatures above 10 degrees, it will become lethargic, it will begin to germinate or rot within 30–45 days. The store must be well ventilated. The radish is stacked in several tiers, on the floor, on racks, in boxes.
Video: sowing radish
Radish has been cultivated for thousands of years all over the world, which means that today we do not need to reinvent the wheel again. Several dozen root crops of black, white, margelan, Japanese radish for summer and winter consumption from their beds will eliminate the need to buy artificial biologically active additives.
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A site about a garden, a summer residence and houseplants.
Radish is an original Slavic vegetable. In terms of taste, it can be spicy and sweet, in the shape of the root crop - cylindrical or round, in its color - white, red, purple and even black. You can eat not only root crops, but also leaves, seeds, pods and even flowers. For colds, delicious medicines are prepared from radish.
Planting radish in open ground with seeds in May-June 2019: the best sowing days and agricultural cultivation techniques
Since the 12th century, for Russia, radish, along with turnips and horseradish, is one of the most popular crops that is present on the table every day. This attachment to radish is understandable: it is loved not only as food, but also as a powerful medicine, thanks to the presence of mineral salts, vitamins and trace elements. And now a juicy and tasty vegetable can be bought without any problems in any supermarket. However, it is much more interesting and not difficult to grow it yourself in the country. To make sure you can do this, check out our tips and tricks for proper planting and proper outdoor care of your radish.
Growing radish (white, pink, green, black): sowing rules, care tips
In general, the rules for growing any radish are very similar, there are no fundamental differences in planting and caring for black, white or green (Margelan), except perhaps, except for the timing of their sowing, taste and useful properties.
Types and varieties
- White, popular varieties: early (Delicacy, Odessa 5, Maiskaya, Sudarushka), medium (Elephant fang, Dragon), late (Winter round white, Autumn giant)
- Pink, popular variety: Crimson moon (early maturing).
- Green (Chinese), popular varieties: Margelanskaya (mid-ripening), Green Goddess (early-ripening), Yuzhanka
- Black, popular varieties: Winter round black, Black winter, Chernavka, Healer.
Planting dates: according to the lunar calendar, depending on the variety and region
The timing of sowing radish in open ground is largely determined by the vegetable variety:
- early small-fruited varieties can be sown already in March-April (if, of course, the weather permits. But in the Central lane, more precisely even in the Moscow region, this will most likely not be possible), or in August, their ripening period is about 40-50 days
- early ripening (summer) - late April - early May, ripening period - 50-65 days
- late (or they are also called autumn or winter, black) - in early or mid-July, ripening period - 90-110 days.
Although it is equally important to take into account both the climatic conditions of the region and the current weather conditions. The optimum temperature conditions for seed germination are + 20-25 degrees, but planting is also allowed at + 15-20.
According to the lunar calendar in 2019
If you want to choose a specific date for planting a root crop, then the lunar calendar will always come to your aid.
So, the most favorable days for sowing radish for seedlings or in open ground according to the lunar calendar in 2019 are:
- in May - 1-4, 12-14, 21-23
- in June - 9-11, 18-20
- in July - 25-31.
If we turn to the lunar calendar, then it is worth knowing that it is even more important not to plant a vegetable on unfavorable days, and this is in 2019:
- in May - 5, 19
- in June - 3, 4, 17
- in July - 2, 3, 17.
According to the lunar calendar from the magazine "1000 Tips for the Summer Resident".
Further, on the example of its black variety consider the basic rules for growing radish: sowing and care in the open field.
How to properly plant a radish in open ground
There are a lot of varieties of this useful root crop at the moment, but black radish, due to its useful and medicinal properties, is of particular value.
Useful properties of a root vegetable
Black radish is both delicious and healing vegetable. If you have sand in your kidneys or liver, then with the help of a radish you can significantly improve your condition. It also helps if you have a cold (such as a prolonged wet cough), high cholesterol, and it also improves performance and stress tolerance during busy work schedules.
Note! You should not use radish (any) if you have peptic ulcer disease, inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and liver, as well as heart disease.
Another advantage of planting black radish is its suitability for long-term storage.
The dates for planting black radish are in the middle of summer, namely, it is advisable to plant it from the 3rd decade of June to the 3rd decade of July.
If you plant it too early, then with a long daylight hours, it can go into flowers (it will begin to shoot and throw out flower-bearing shoots) and subsequently prevent root crops. Therefore, in order to accurately wait for the ripening of the vegetable, observe the timing of its sowing.
Garden preparation: site selection and suitable soil
A good harvest of radish can only grow in the right spot. It is optimal to find a place that is illuminated by the sun most of the day.
As for the land, the radish grows best on fertile loamy soil, in other words, light humus soils with an acidity of 6-7 pH are suitable for it.
It is quite simple to prepare a garden bed for a radish: you need to thoroughly dig up the ground (to a depth of 30-35 centimeters), add a couple of buckets of excellent compost, wood ash, and then mix everything again and level the garden bed.
Next, you need to make rows for sowing radish seeds. The sowing depth of seeds should be 1.5-2 centimeters. The distance between the rows should be maintained at 20-40 centimeters. It is optimal to sow the seeds themselves at a distance of 10-15 centimeters, but if you want to get an even higher yield, then sow them closer in order to subsequently thin out and get rid of weak plants, leaving only the healthiest ones.
Many summer residents practice joint sowing of radish with potatoes, cucumbers, onions, tomatoes and even corn.
As a rule, they try to plant the radish after harvesting the garlic. The following crops will also be good predecessors: onion, tomato, cucumbers, carrot, beet and peas and other legumes.
Step-by-step instructions for sowing radish in open ground:
- Before sowing, it is advisable (but not necessary) to soak the seeds for 24 hours in a pink solution of potassium permanganate.
- Make grooves or planting holes with a depth of 1.5-2 centimeters every 5 centimeters (if you plan to thin out) or after 10-15 (if without thinning) at a distance of 20-30 centimeters.
- Place seeds in grooves or holes, and then cover with soil and compact slightly.
- Water abundantly (the same can be done after stage 2) and cover with foil (optional).
- Dust with ash and / or tobacco dust from black (cruciferous) flea beetles.
Outdoor radish care
Despite the fact that this vegetable is considered to be quite unpretentious, some care is required to obtain a rich and tasty radish harvest.
So, in first time after sowing desirable maintain high humidity in the gardenso that the seedlings appear together. As a rule, this takes about 3-5 days, but after germination for 1-2 weeks, the garden should be kept moist. There are two ways - either constant watering, or you can cover the bed with a film that will retain moisture.
A week later, through the emergence of seedlings, the bed follows first time thin outleaving only the strongest seedlings.
Further care of the radish is quite standard: on time to water (if you forget about watering, then the root crops will grow small and bitter and will not be edible), preventing the soil from drying out, at least once a week, loosen and weed.
By the way! To reduce the number of watering, loosening and weeding, you can mulch the beds with peat or humus.
Also, during the summer, you need to make sure that the seedlings do not hinder each other's development. If you notice that the plantings are thickened, then you should perform one more thinning, otherwise the root vegetables simply will not be able to ripen normally and will turn out to be small.
As for the dressing of the radish, during the season it should be fertilized at least 2 times. The first time when 3-4 leaves appear (nitrogen feeding), the second time - a month after the first, when the root crop begins to grow actively.
As a fertilizer, it is optimal to use herbal infusions, birch tar (protection against pests), ammonia (nitrogen). Also ammonium nitrate (1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water) is suitable for nitrogen fertilization.
Advice! It is very good to combine top dressing with watering.
Diseases and pests
Black (cruciferous) fleas are very fond of young seedlings of radish, therefore, as measures to combat these pests, crops should be treated, more precisely, powdered with tobacco dust or wood ash.
Harvesting radish for storage
If you want to store black radish for a long time, then you need to harvest and prepare it for storage according to certain rules. So, it must be collected on time in most cases before the end of October and always before the onset of frost. You need to pull out the vegetable, slightly digging in with a shovel. Next, you should get rid of the foliage, but if you are determined to store the radish for a long time (for example, all winter), then you should leave 1-2 centimeters of the foliage.
Important! If you put this root crop for long winter storage, then you cannot wash it, just shake it off of the dirt and that's it, otherwise it will rot.
Optimally put dry root vegetables in boxes with wet sand and remove to the basement or cellar for long-term storage.
You can also store the radish in refrigerator. In this case, the tops must be cut off completely, rinsed thoroughly, and then also shortened the tail, leaving 4-5 centimeters. Next, the roots should be processed in a slightly green solution of brilliant green, immersed in it for 1-2 minutes. When the vegetables are dry, they must be put in bags and put in the refrigerator.
Sowing radish and planting care
It is better to prepare the site for growing radish in the fall, carefully digging up the soil and choosing the roots of the weeds. In the spring, when forming ridges, a bucket of humus or compost and 150-200 g of ash and 40-50 g of any complex fertilizer are introduced per 1 m 2.
Early-ripening varieties are sown as early as possible (in late April - early May), and late-ripening varieties for winter consumption - in the first half of July, since early sowing of winter varieties leads to the formation of inflorescences already in the first year of life and cracking of root crops. Chinese radish should be sown in the second half of summer (early ripening varieties - in early August), when the plants are not threatened by the transition to flowering. In the south, sowing is possible until the end of September.
In regions with a temperate climate, it is better to sow the daikon from early July to early August, in this case, the flowering of plants can be guaranteed to be avoided. In recent years, non-shooting varieties have appeared, for example Minovase Summecross, Ttsukushi Sprint Cross, they can be sown from April to July.
Daikon better to remove before the autumn rains and the onset of frost
Large, well-executed seeds are selected for cultivation.
Before sowing, they can be soaked in a solution of potassium permanganate (0.2 g per 1 liter of water) 1 and then dried. Radish is sown in rows with a distance of 35-40 cm between them, seeding the seeds to a depth of 1-2 cm. After emergence (about the fifth day), they are thinned out. The first thinning is carried out in the phase of 1-2 leaves, the second - after 20 days, leaving the following distances between plants in a row: for early varieties - 6-8 cm, late - 12-15 cm. Removed seedlings of varieties with a rounded root crop after the first thinning can be transplanted to a new place, the roots of long-fruited varieties turn out to be branched during transplantation.
Radish plants require regular watering - with a lack of moisture in dry hot weather, root crops with flabby pulp are formed. In addition, radish is very sensitive to air drought - when the air humidity drops to 40%, growth stops abruptly and the quality of root crops deteriorates. Regular weeding and loosening of the soil near the plants are also necessary.
The first time the radish is fed in the phase of 3-4 leaves, the second - after 20-30 days, when the root crop begins to form. At the same time, fresh organic matter should not be brought into the beds, as this causes hollowness and decay of the root of the root crop. It is better to feed the crops with ash infusion (150 g per bucket of water) or with a solution of mineral fertilizers containing potassium.