Climatic conditions in central Russia do not allow growing cucumbers from seeds in open beds without additional film shelters. This popular vegetable crop is very demanding for heat and light. With frosts down to -1 degrees, young shoots can easily die, and when shaded, adult plants will bear fruit poorly. Therefore, growing cucumbers in a greenhouse is the most popular and widespread option among Russian vegetable growers.
Popular varieties of cucumbers
Cucumbers in a greenhouse in winter and summer are capable of producing high yields if the conditions are suitable for the plants. This means that if you have a heated greenhouse, even in the winter months you will be able to please your loved ones with fresh vegetables grown without chemicals.
Before you start planting, you need to select varieties of cucumbers for greenhouses, because not every variety is suitable for growing in such conditions. For example, bee-pollinated varieties will have to be manually pollinated every day (insects are reluctant to fly into the greenhouse, and in winter they are not at all), otherwise the ovaries will fall off. Most popular:
- Self-pollinated high-yielding cucumber hybrids: Hercules F1 (salad), Emelya F1 (pickling), Dynamite F1 (universal), Zozulya F1, Anyuta F1, Picnic F1, Lilliput F1, Hummingbird F1, Machaon F1, Calendar F1, April F1, Courage F1, Lukhovitsky F1 and others.
- Yields and at the same time rather unpretentious varieties: Moscow hothouse, Zarya, Manul, Pomegranate, Surprise 66.
- The varieties Marfinsky, Relay, Domashny, NK-mini, Iva, Regata, Rykovsky, Rossiysky are distinguished by special shade tolerance and adaptability to low humidity.
Before you start planting, you need to select varieties of cucumbers for greenhouses.
Detailed technology for growing cucumbers in a greenhouse
For germination of cucumber seeds, a temperature of + 22 + 25 degrees is recommended. Therefore, if the greenhouse is unheated, of the film type, the seeds are sown at home in the first half of April in order to transplant ready-made seedlings into the greenhouse by mid-May. In heated greenhouses, you can sow cucumber seeds at any time of the year.
Cucumbers love fertile soils saturated with organic fertilizers. In order for the cultivation of greenhouse cucumbers to bring good results, prepare the soil mixture in advance: humus and peat in 2 parts, 1 part of sawdust (preferably old), wood ash 3 tbsp. and nitrophoska 1 tbsp. You can buy ready-made soil with fertilizers. Level the soil surface and sprinkle mineral fertilizers on top. Then cover the surface with plastic wrap and let it sit for a couple of weeks to absorb the fertilizer. This will help protect seedlings from diseases of cucumbers, increase the yield and improve the palatability of the fruit.
Video about growing cucumbers in a greenhouse
Calibration and disinfection of seeds
It is best to grow cucumbers in a greenhouse from seeds that are 2-3 years old, as they will provide the highest yield. Calibrate the seeds manually by removing diseased and empty seeds. Then you should disinfect the seeds from diseases and pests by putting them for 12 hours in a cloth moistened with aloe juice or a solution of trace elements (add boric acid and copper sulfate at the tip of a knife to a liter of hot water, as well as a teaspoon of nitrophoska). Then rinse the seeds in running water and place them between layers of damp gauze to place in the refrigerator for hardening. Hardening is carried out at a temperature of about 0 degrees for a week, do not forget to moisten the gauze from time to time.
It is recommended to grow seedlings in small pots or plastic cups. Each seed is placed one at a time in a pot to a depth of 2 cm, covered with a layer of soil and covered with a damp cloth on top so that the top layer of soil does not dry out. You can sow seeds for seedlings for 10-15 days - planting cucumbers in a greenhouse using a conveyor method will provide you with a continuous harvest throughout the year.
It is recommended to grow seedlings in small pots or plastic cups.
Until the first shoots appear, the temperature in the greenhouse should be maintained at +25 degrees, and with the emergence of sprouts for 5 days, the daytime temperature should be reduced to +15, and the night temperature to +12 degrees. Watering the seedlings should be every 2 days, periodically feeding the mullein solution (at the rate of 1: 6). After feeding, wash the seedlings with clean warm water.
Transplanting seedlings and caring for cucumbers
A month later, transplanting seedlings begins. In shelving greenhouses, seedlings are planted on shelves covered with soil, while in other types of greenhouses they simply form even ridges. Plants can be planted in beds directly in pots, buried in the ground by ¾ of the height of the pot. The distance between plants should be at least 20 cm, and between rows - at least 90 cm.
In shelving greenhouses, seedlings are planted on shelves covered with soil
During the day in the greenhouse, the temperature should be maintained at + 25 + 30 degrees, with mandatory ventilation on sunny days, and at night - within +15 degrees. When the third true leaf appears, the first fertilizing is done with fertilizers, the second feeding is carried out at the beginning of flowering. During fruiting, you can feed the cucumbers 4 times with a mullein solution, or a solution of chicken droppings. Before flowering, it is recommended to water the cucumbers every 5 days, after flowering - every other day, but if you notice that the leaves have begun to wither, this is a signal for urgent watering. As the plants grow, they will need to be carefully tied to two wires stretched across the top of the greenhouse.
Features of growing cucumbers in greenhouses in winter
Before growing cucumbers in a greenhouse, it is worth considering the most likely difficulties that you will have to face. The first problem is the lack of moisture in the air due to stove or water heating of greenhouses. Since cucumbers are very moisture-loving, you will have to constantly take care of maintaining a comfortable air humidity. Arrange baking sheets, barrels of water, moisten floors, pipes, spray plants with a spray bottle, etc.
Video about growing cucumbers in a greenhouse in winter
If you are interested in growing cucumbers in winter, in December-January, then start sowing seeds at the end of September, and planting seedlings at the end of October. But keep in mind that due to the lack of sunlight in January-February, growing cucumbers in a greenhouse in winter is almost impossible. without additional artificial lighting... With an increase in illumination, the quality of the fruit improves and the content of ascorbic acid and sugars in the fruit increases. It is advisable to hang the lamps first at a height of 50 cm above the plants, and as they grow, raise the lamps higher, up to 1.5 m.
Be sure to monitor the temperature regime in the greenhouse: there should be no sudden daily temperature changes and temperature drops below +10 degrees, otherwise the leaves will actively grow, but the fruits will stop pouring, and the root system will not be able to absorb water.
Now you know how to grow cucumbers in winter, which means that by the New Year's table you will have your own harvest of delicious homemade cucumbers!
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How to grow cucumbers in a greenhouse in the winter
It's a crime to have your own plot and not have fresh, organic vegetables on your table every day. Even in a small area, you can build a greenhouse, breathe in the fresh cucumber aroma, and enjoy the taste every day. This is not difficult, you just need to know some of the nuances about how to grow cucumbers in a greenhouse in winter. And not only cucumbers, tomatoes, bell peppers, greens can grow absolutely calmly nearby.
We put the greenhouse correctly
Before you start planting directly, you need to decide on a place for the future greenhouse. Ideally, this should be a flat area that is not exposed to winds. You can choose a place with a southern slope - the southern winds are not so terrible for growing this vegetable crop. Groundwater should ideally be located at a depth of 1.5-2 meters.
One of the main secrets of effective cultivation of cucumbers in a greenhouse is the fertile soil from which you can prepare soil mixtures and which allows moisture to pass through well. Ideally, there should be such a soil ratio: 50 percent peat, 30 percent humus and the rest - field soil. It is good to add coniferous sawdust to the soil.
The best varieties of cucumbers for greenhouses video, as well as other data are indicated in the article.
Immediately before preparing the soil for planting, you need to enrich it with the following substances: potassium sulfate, ammonium nitrate and superphosphate. For growing cucumbers, beds are best - they should be one meter wide and about 25 centimeters high.
The video shows new technologies for growing cucumbers in a greenhouse:
Technology of growing cucumbers in a polycarbonate greenhouse
We figured out the temperature and humidity, then we should dwell on the nutrition of cucumbers in the greenhouse. 7 days after planting the seedlings of cucumbers, the first feeding is carried out in the greenhouse using small doses of nitrogen fertilizers (6-10 g / m2) and from the moment when the cucumber blooms, it is regularly fertilized with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
Additionally, 5-10 grams of magnesium sulfate is added per 1 m2. The total amount of fertilizers should not exceed 70g per square meter of area, otherwise you risk growing nitrate products.
Also, cucumbers in the greenhouse need foliar dressing with microfertilizers and macrofertilizers, use for this ammonium nitrate (10-15 g / 10 l), potassium sulfate (7-8 g / 10 l), urea (10-20 g / 10 l), superphosphate (10- 12 g / 10L). Microfertilizers for cucumbers in a polycarbonate greenhouse - boric acid (5-7.5 g / 10 l), copper, zinc, cobalt sulfate (2 g / 10 l), baking soda (50 g / 10 l).
After spraying and watering, be sure to ventilate the greenhouse to prevent excessive moisture in the air. It is better to harvest cucumbers every other day, so the greens will ripen and food will be evenly distributed throughout the plant.
The profitability of growing cucumbers in a greenhouse, including polycarbonate, is high, but before planting an area with cucumbers, choose a variety wisely, it is the varietal characteristics that determine the yield, the number of ovaries, the quality of the fruit and their size, the possibility of growing in greenhouse conditions, durability to diseases, duration of fruiting, etc.
And, only then, the correct agricultural technology for growing cucumbers in a greenhouse, which you will carry out with plants, can lead you to the coveted harvest and long-term fruiting. Again, the selection of a variety is very important when growing cucumbers in a greenhouse!
Cucumbers in the greenhouse: growing and care
Cucumbers are extremely delicate plants that do not like cold, daily temperature changes and need moderately moist soil. It is not always possible to create the necessary conditions in the open air, therefore, sheltered rooms are used. And the technology of growing cucumbers in a greenhouse itself requires taking into account many important factors. If you decide to grow cucumbers in a greenhouse, you need to create the right conditions and give them proper care. Compliance with such simple rules gives a large harvest of cucumbers.
The road to harvest begins with the preparation of the greenhouse:
- In the fall, it is necessary to clean the greenhouse of plant residues and burn them.
- If you plan to lay compost, manure or plant residues (not cucumber) in the ridge, then it is better to immediately prepare the bed - dig a trench.
- If the beds are ordinary, then the top layer of soil should be removed, 10-15 cm.
- After that, treat all structures of the greenhouse with a solution of bleach.
- To prepare a solution of 400 grams of bleach, pour 12 liters of water and let it brew for 2 hours.
- Then strain and use to disinfect the greenhouse with a spray bottle.
- With the remaining thickening, you can whitewash the wooden parts of the greenhouse or treat the wooden structures of the greenhouse with a 10% solution of copper sulfate.
- In a glazed greenhouse, in autumn, structures and glass can be disinfected with a 2% formalin solution, at the rate of 1 liter of solution per 1 sq. meter.
- If the greenhouse was not treated in the fall, disinfection can be carried out in the spring with the following solution: Dissolve 2 Oxychoma tablets and 1 Inta-Vira tablet in 10 liters of water. Solution consumption 10 liters for 15-20 square meters.
Read more: Greenhouse preparation for the new season
Preparing the beds
Cucumbers give a high yield only on soil rich in organic matter and mineral fertilizers. It is ideal to grow cucumbers in manure beds.
- To do this, in the fall, a trench is dug 35-40 cm deep and 40 cm wide for the entire length of the garden, if it was not possible to do this work in the fall, then it can be done in the spring.
- In the spring, cow manure is placed in a trench in a thick layer (30 cm), compacted, spilled with a hot 1% solution of potassium permanganate and covered with a film.
- After the manure is warmed up, it is covered from above with a soil mixture of peat, sawdust and humus.
- Spill again with a 1% solution of potassium permanganate and cover with a film before sowing or planting seedlings.
In the absence of a large amount of manure, you can equip compost beds.
- Shredded plant waste, leaves, garden waste, green grass, sawdust, shavings are placed in a trench or on a ridge, manure can be added.
- A large amount of green grass and leaves provides the best heating for a warm bed.
- The poured waste is compacted, spilled with hot water or manganese solution, covered with a layer of soil, 20-25 cm.
- Cover the finished bed with a foil for warming up.
- The heating temperature of the compost bed is lower than that of the manure bed, therefore, sowing cucumbers or planting seedlings on such beds should be later than on manure beds.
Soil for ordinary beds can be of the following composition:
- 3 parts of peat,
- 3 parts of humus,
- 2 parts of turf land,
- 1 part sawdust.
The soil is brought into the greenhouse, beds are formed, mineral fertilizers are leveled and scattered on top:
- 20-30 grams of superphosphate,
- 15-20 grams of ammonium nitrate
- and 20-25 grams of potassium chloride per 1 sq. meter, mix with soil and level with a rake.
Dates of sowing seeds for seedlings
When growing cucumbers in film greenhouses, to get an early harvest, seedlings can be grown at home on a windowsill.
- According to the technology of growing cucumbers in a greenhouse, seeds for seedlings are sown on April 2-20,
- in such a way as to plant 25-30 day old seedlings in the greenhouse on May 5-15.
When growing cucumbers in greenhouses, seedlings can be grown in the greenhouse itself in a small area of the garden, with additional shelter or heating.
- Seeds are sown in a garden bed or pots on April 15-20, when the ground in the greenhouse warms up to 16-18 degrees.
- Seedlings at the age of 25 days are planted in permanent places.
In heated glass greenhouses, sowing seeds and planting seedlings can be done earlier.
- For sowing, seeds of 2-3 years ago are used, plants from such seeds form more female flowers and give a greater yield.
- When sowing seeds for seedlings, 2 seeds are placed in pots, then pluck out the weaker plant.
- The pots are placed close to each other and covered with a double layer of covering material.
- When growing seedlings, it is necessary to maintain the temperature during the day at least 15-16 degrees, at night at least 12-14 degrees.
- If the temperature rises above 20 degrees during the day, then the covering material can be removed, and the seedlings can be wrapped again at night.
Planting seedlings in a greenhouse
Seedlings are planted in a greenhouse in rows,
- with a row spacing of 90 cm,
- between plants 30-50 cm.
For planting, choose strong, healthy, well-developed seedlings. Ruthlessly discarding curves, poorly developed plants, there will still be no sense from them.
Planting cucumber seedlings in a greenhouse
- Best done in the morning or on a cloudy day.
- It is good to shed the seedlings the day before.
- In the beds, make holes a little more deep than the size of the pot.
- In each hole, you can pour 1/2 handful of ash, mix with the soil, then spill well with warm water.
- Seedlings are planted vertically.
- You should not deepen the seedlings when planting, the root collar can rot and the plant will die.
Temperature regime in the greenhouse
According to the technology of growing cucumbers, the temperature in the greenhouse
- during the day it should be within + 30 degrees, optimally + 25 + 28 degrees in sunny and + 22 + 24 degrees in cloudy weather.
- At night, during the flowering period, + 18 + 20 degrees, with the beginning of fruiting + 21 + 25 degrees.
With the onset of hot days, the temperature in the greenhouse is regulated by ventilation, but trying to avoid drafts.
It is difficult to maintain the temperature regime in plastic greenhouses.
- To raise the temperature at night, a metal barrel with water is placed in the greenhouse.
- During the day, the water in the barrel heats up, at night it gives off heat, increasing the temperature in the greenhouse.
- When planting seedlings in a greenhouse early or when it gets cold, the plants are covered with non-woven material.
Recommendations for the care of cucumbers
To obtain a high-quality harvest of cucumbers, the gardener needs to properly cultivate the soil, water, loosen and mulch. Look after and monitor the growth of cucumbers, fight pests and diseases. Knowing the secrets, caring for the culture will become not a duty, but a real pleasure.
Favorable days for caring for cucumber seedlings in 2021
In the process of growth and development, cucumber plants will require various care measures. These works should also be carried out in accordance with the lunar calendar. The site has detailed material about what types of work and in what periods of time can be performed.
Watering cucumbers in a greenhouse
Before flowering, cucumber plants are watered moderately,
- after 2-3 days.
- Water consumption is 4-5 liters per 1 sq. meter.
- The water should be warm, + 23 + 25 degrees.
Cold water can cause root rot, which will lead to the death of the plant.
With the onset of flowering and during the fruiting period of cucumbers, watering increases.
- Watering is best done by sprinkling, which allows you to increase the moisture not only of the soil, but also of the air.
- When watering, try not to get on the plants, in sunny weather this can cause burns to the leaves.
- Or irrigate along the grooves made at a short distance from the plants.
Fertilizing cucumbers in the greenhouse
The first feeding is carried out 10-12 days after transplanting.
- Since at this time there is an enhanced growth of the leaf mass, the plant needs nitrogen.
- You can feed it with a solution of mullein or bird droppings.
- You can give foliar dressing with a solution of urea (2 teaspoons per 10 liters of water).
At the beginning of flowering they feed solution of mineral fertilizers:
- 1 teaspoon of superphosphate, urea, potassium sulfate
- and dilute 1 tablespoon of sodium humate in 10 liters of water.
During the fruiting period, cucumbers are fed 3-4 more times.
- As a top dressing, you can use solutions of mullein or bird droppings (0.5 liters per 10 liters of water) with the addition of 1 tablespoon of nitroammophoska.
- Or use ready-made fertilizers for feeding: "Ideal", "Fertility", "Giant", "Breadwinner", "Bogatyr" according to the instructions.
- You can use "green" dressing. For its preparation, the grass is crushed, poured with water, allowed to brew for a week, then filtered. For use, 4-5 liters of infusion is diluted with water to 10 liters.
The consumption of fertilizer solutions is 4-6 liters per 1 sq. meter.
Cucumber plant formation
2 weeks after planting the plants in a permanent place, they must be tied with twine to a wire stretched over the rows.
- In the lower 3-4 nodes, the shoots are pinched (blind),
- in the next 4-5 nodes, the shoots are pinched on 1 leaf and 1 cucumber.
- Above, pinching is carried out on 2 leaves and 2 cucumbers.
- Closer to the wire, the lateral shoots are pinched into 4-5 sheets and 4-5 cucumbers.
- When the plant grows to the wire, the main stem must be wrapped around the wire 2 times and lowered to grow down.
- When the plant drops to a distance of 1 meter from the soil, pinch it.
Fruits are harvested every day or every other day, when the cucumbers reach the size corresponding to the standards of this variety. Overgrowth of fruits should not be allowed, this retards the growth of other fruits on the plant. The fruits are best harvested in the morning.
Video: Growing cucumbers in a greenhouse
Growing cucumbers in a greenhouse in winter
You should not plant cucumber seeds directly into the ground - it is better to prepare the seedlings in advance. To do this, we take ordinary paper or plastic cups, put the soil inside, stick a cucumber seed to a depth of several centimeters, water it a little and cover it with a film or a damp cloth. In the greenhouse, using heating systems, we bring the temperature to +25 ° C, and after the seedlings in the cups rise, we lower it to +15 ° C.
After that, we can start transplanting seedlings. There should be a distance of about 20 cm between the bushes and about 70 cm between the rows - thanks to this, their root system will develop normally. Every day, it is advisable to ventilate the greenhouse by installing a thermometer inside - make sure that the temperature does not fall below +15 ° C. It is important to properly feed the seedlings in the winter season.
The first time work is carried out as soon as three leaves appear on the plant. The second time fertilization is applied when the plant begins to bloom. To do this, you can use chicken manure or mullein - organic fertilizers take root better and are not dangerous for future fruits. Make sure that the leaves of the plant do not wither - if you notice this, water the bushes immediately.
Winter greenhouse cucumber growing business
Cucumber is a vegetable that is in demand at any time of the year. In the off-season and in winter, cucumbers in stores are mostly imported, their price sometimes does not match the taste. But more and more people are demanding natural food, including cucumbers.
Discover the business of growing cucumbers in a greenhouse in winter, because the competition between producers in the country is low, and the quality of products is better than foreign ones.
Technology for growing cucumbers in winter
Running this business requires:
- equipped greenhouse with favorable conditions
- varieties of fruitful cucumbers
- prepared soil.
The greenhouse should be made of durable material that retains heat well. Now greenhouses with a wooden frame are still used, but more and more preference is given to greenhouses with a metal frame.
For its manufacture, thick fittings, shaped pipes or channel bars are used. For winter greenhouses, it is better to use a tubular frame, and use cellular polycarbonate as a shelter.
It is able to maintain the required temperature with proper heating.
Growing cucumbers in a greenhouse as a year-round business is very profitable, the profitability can reach up to 500%.
Cucumber varieties for winter cultivation in a greenhouse must:
- be frost-resistant, tolerate temperature extremes
- characterized by frequent fruiting, disease resistance and self-pollination
- don't be bitter
- undemanding in care.
The soil in the greenhouse is carefully prepared. There should be no different vegetation that negatively affects the cucumbers. Mineral fertilizers and sawdust are introduced into it.
The technology of growing cucumbers in a greenhouse requires growing seedlings. This process should begin with calibration, as well as with disinfection of seeds.
It is best to grow seedlings in peat cups, tablets, or plastic cups. For the emergence of seedlings, a temperature of + 250C is required. The sprouts that appear have enough temperature of + 12-150C.
Seedlings should be watered every two days and fed periodically with mullein solution (1: 6).
At the age of one month, the seedlings of cucumbers are ready for planting in a greenhouse: in a row, keeping a distance of 20 cm between seedlings, the aisles should be from 90 cm. The optimal temperature regime for cucumbers is + 250C. Airing in the greenhouse every day should be even in winter. With the appearance of the third leaf, the first feeding is performed.
The next time the cucumbers in the greenhouse should be fed when flowering begins. During the fruiting period, 4 more feeding with mullein or chicken droppings is performed. Flowering plants need to be watered after five days, and fruiting plants every other day. Plants should not be allowed to wither. Seedlings of cucumbers should be tied with threads or wire.
Cucumbers in a winter greenhouse: growing technology
If the air is dry due to heating in the greenhouse, then it should be humidified by spraying the walls, floor, air, installing containers with water.
In winter, there is not enough natural light, so electric lamps are needed, which are hung over the plants themselves, and rise gradually as they grow.
The temperature should not drop in the greenhouse below + 100C in winter. A decrease in this temperature regime will lead to a halt in fruiting.
The cultivation of cucumbers in a winter greenhouse cannot be called a simple business: one cannot do without financial costs for lighting and heating. But the hard work will be rewarded with fresh crispy cucumbers.
The grown products need to be sold, so you need to take care of the distribution channel in advance. The products require certificates confirming their quality.
If you have a small business on growing cucumbers in a greenhouse, then you can sell cucumbers on the market on your own, and yet wholesale is more profitable, since cucumbers are perishable products.